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Girls on the Spectrum: Unmasking Female Autism Symptoms

Diverse group of girls with autism supporting each other inclusively.
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Girls on the Spectrum: Unmasking Female Autism Symptoms

Do you ever wonder if your daughter’s quietness or shyness might be something more? Recent research suggests that girls with autism, often overlooked due to masking their symptoms, may go undiagnosed.

This article aims to unmask the hidden signs of female autism and offer guidance for diagnosis and support.

Key Takeaways

  • Females with autism may exhibit different symptoms compared to males.
  • Girls with autism often mask their symptoms, making it harder to diagnose them.
  • Diagnosing autism in females can be challenging due to diagnostic tools and criteria primarily developed for males. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of these differences and advocate for increased understanding of female-specific traits.
  • Seeking support from health professionals and advocacy for autism in females is crucial for providing appropriate treatment and creating a more inclusive society.

Common Traits of Autism

Autism is characterized by common traits that include difficulties in social communication and interaction, as well as behavioral patterns.

Social communication and interaction symptoms

Social communication difficulties can exhibit in many ways. However, some of the common symptoms include poor eye contact, abnormal social reciprocity in communication and difficulty with relationships.

An autistic person may have difficulty talk about a common topic with another person where there is back-and-forth conversation. They may have difficulty understanding non-verbal communication. Additionally, they may have trouble with understanding different social contexts.

Behavioural pattern symptoms

Some external display of behavioural patterns may include repetitive motor movements, such as flapping their hands or rocking their bodies. Additionally, they may have hyper or hypo-reactivity towards sensory input, such as watching lights or not liking loud noises.

Some other behavioural patterns that can exhibit in an autistic individual may be the need of sameness and use of routines. Changes in routine can become extremely hard.

They may also be highly interested or intense interest in one or a few topics.

Understanding Autism in Women

Research suggests that there are differences in the symptoms of autism between males and females, with women often exhibiting unique characteristics and behaviors, as we will discuss later in the article.

Often, females are diagnosed later in life. This may be due to poor understanding of female-specific traits and/or autistic girls masking symptoms.


Autism shows up in many places around the world. According to the World Health Organisation, 1 in 100 children are autistic (WHO, 2023). More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism, but many girls have it too. Currently, for every four boys with autism, there is one girl who has it as well (Butter, 2017).

Autism can happen to anyone at any age or place in life. However, it’s common for girls to find out they have autism when they are adults.

Differences in Symptoms in Males and Females

Autism presents differently in females compared to males. These differences can result in a delayed diagnosis or even misdiagnosis in females.

According to a 2021 research paper which studied the differences between males and females, they found significant differences in the following areas:

  • Both had difficulty with social communication and social interaction
  • Boys had higher difficulty with developing and maintaining relationships.
  • Boys were more likely to require sameness, rigid thinking patterns and greeting rituals.
  • However, both seemed to have the same about of fixated interests (de Giambattista et al., 2021).

Although boys seem to have more obvious symptoms of autism, it doesn’t mean that girls don’t experience the same level of challenges!

Masking Behavior

Masking behavior is something that happens when girls and women with autism hide or cover up their symptoms, especially in social situations. They might copy what others are doing to fit in and seem “normal.” Masking can be really challenging for them because it means they have to hide who they really are or what they really want to do.

It can make them feel anxious and depressed. In fact, studies suggest that autistic people who mask their autism may even be more likely to think about hurting themselves. So it’s important for parents to understand masking behavior and support their child if she is experiencing this.

It is important to note that males can also exhibit masking behavior and this is not just something that autistic females do.

Causes of autism in females

Research suggests that the causes of autism in females are complex and may involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. While studies have shown that there is a strong genetic component to autism, it is believed that females may have a higher threshold for displaying symptoms or may possess protective factors that make them less likely to be diagnosed.

It’s important that more research is needed to fully understand the causes of autism in females.

Diagnosis in adulthood

Many women are not diagnosed with autism until adulthood. This is because the signs and symptoms of autism can present differently in females compared to males, making it more difficult autistic adults to recognize.

Additionally, many girls learn how to mask their autistic traits and mimic socially acceptable behaviors, which can further delay or even prevent diagnosis. However, seeking a formal diagnosis in adulthood can provide validation and understanding for women who have long struggled with their identity and experiences.

It can also open up access to resources, support groups, and therapies that can help individuals navigate their daily lives more effectively.

Symptoms of Autism in Females

Autism symptoms in females can manifest differently than in males, and it is important for parents to recognize the signs.

Signs of autism in girls

Girls with autism may display the following signs, which can help parents identify their child’s potential diagnosis:

  • Difficulty making eye contact or maintaining it during conversations.
  • Challenges in understanding social cues and nonverbal communication.
  • Limited interest in playing pretend or engaging in imaginative play.
  • Preference for solitary activities and difficulty forming friendships.
  • Sensitivity to sensory stimuli, such as sounds, lights, or textures.
  • Repetitive behaviors or movements, such as hand-flapping or rocking.
  • Resistance to change and difficulty adapting to new routines or environments.

Signs for autism in women

Autism symptoms in women can sometimes be different from those in men. Here are some signs that may indicate autism in women:

  1. Social difficulties: Women with autism may struggle with social interactions, find it hard to make friends, or have trouble understanding social cues.
  2. Emotional regulation issues: Women on the spectrum may have difficulty managing their emotions and expressing them appropriately.
  3. Intense interests: Some women with autism develop intense interests in specific topics or activities, often to the exclusion of other interests.
  4. Sensory sensitivities: Many autistic women may experience heightened sensitivity to sensory stimuli such as noise, touch, or certain textures.
  5. Communication differences: Women on the spectrum may have unique patterns of speech and nonverbal communication, such as using more formal language or struggling with eye contact.

Issues when diagnosing ASD in women

Diagnosing autism in women can be challenging for several reasons. One issue is that the current diagnostic tools and criteria were primarily developed based on observations of autistic males, which means they may not capture the unique characteristics and presentation of autism in women.

Another challenge is that many women with autism have learned to camouflage or mask their symptoms, often blending into social situations more easily than men with autism. This ability to hide their struggles can make it difficult for healthcare professionals to recognize the signs of autism in women, leading to delayed or missed diagnoses.

Additionally, societal stereotypes about how autism “should” look can also contribute to underdiagnosis in females. As a result, many girls and adult women may only receive a formal autism diagnosis much later in life, if at all.

Support and treatment

A diverse group of health professionals and support group members engaging in a roundtable discussion.

Health professionals and support groups play a crucial role in providing assistance and resources for girls and women on the autism spectrum. They can help with diagnosis, provide therapy options, and offer guidance for managing daily challenges.

It is important to seek out these supports to ensure that individuals receive the care they need to thrive.

Health professionals

Health professionals play a crucial role in supporting girls and women with autism. It is important for them to have knowledge about how autism can present differently in females. Here are some key points for health professionals to consider:

  1. Be aware that females with autism may exhibit more subtle social communication difficulties compared to males.
  2. Recognize that autistic girls and women may engage in masking behavior, where they learn to camouflage their symptoms in order to fit in socially.
  3. Understand the unique challenges faced by females with autism, such as higher rates of misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis due to differences in symptom presentation.
  4. Advocate for increased research and understanding of female-specific autism traits, so that diagnostic criteria and interventions can be improved.

Advocacy for autism in females

Advocacy for autism in females is crucial to ensure that girls on the spectrum receive appropriate support and treatment. This advocacy involves raising awareness about the unique experiences and challenges faced by autistic girls, as their symptoms may differ from those of boys.

It focuses on providing resources, services, and programs tailored specifically to meet the needs of girls with autism. By advocating for autism in females, we can help create a more inclusive society that understands and supports all individuals on the spectrum.


Diverse group of girls with autism supporting each other inclusively.

In conclusion, it is important to understand that girls on the autism spectrum often hide their symptoms, making diagnosis more challenging. Recognizing and unmasking female autism symptoms is crucial for providing support and appropriate treatment.

By raising awareness and understanding the unique experiences of girls with autism, we can ensure they receive the help they need to thrive. Together, we can create a more inclusive society where all individuals are understood and supported.


1. How do women and girls with autism differ from males?

Girls and women on the spectrum may display different symptoms compared to the typical “autistic traits” seen in males. Therefore, there may be a delay in picking up these symptoms. Additionally, females may mask their symptoms more than boys, which can make it even more tricky to diagnose.

2. Why is it often hard to diagnose autism in girls?

It’s harder because of gender differences in how autistic characteristics show up. Females might display less repetitive behaviours or have better social relationships as they copy their peers. Some health professionals and teachers may also not be familiar with female-specific traits.

3. What could happen if I think that my child has autism?

If you see changes in your child’s development like delays or issues with sensory factors, you should talk to your family doctor about possibly having Autism Spectrum Disorders.


Butter, E. (2017). Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Difference Between Boys and Girls

de Giambattista, C. et al. (2021) ‘Sex differences in autism spectrum disorder: Focus on high functioning children and adolescents’, Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.539835.

World Health Organisation. (2023). Autism

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